Basic Teaching of Islam - Light of Islam

In the name of the
Most High




Lecture given by:

Shaheed Ayatollah Dr. Beheshti

Preface to the 4th

The present book is part of the invaluable legacy of
the martyr Ayatollah Dr. Beheshti. Despite its briefness,
it successfully presents the principles and outlines of
comprehensiveness of the book together with the need to
illuminate the high station of that great Islamic figure,
impelled the Islamic Propagation Organization (IPO) to
present a re-edition of the work which was first
published by The Islamic Center of Hamburg. I.P.O.

International Relation Dept.

4th Ed. 1991, (1411 A.H.)

1. Introduction

Dear Ladies and gentlemen: Let me greet first those
who- free from arrogance and prejudice- seek the truth,
those who humble themselves in its presence regardless of
what the truth may be, those who do not blindly oppose it
when it requires apprehension and when it ought to be
embraced, those who carefully and wisely investigate each
problem and having in good conscience evaluated it follow
nothing but the best.

Koran says:

"And thus preach joy to My servants.

Those who listen to the word and follow the best of

Those are the ones whom Allah has guided and they are
the wise people."

You have invited me to talk to you about Islam today.
The actual reason seems to be that you have heard of
"Islam" and thereby have been urged to
seek further knowledge and learn of its truth. Let me
give you good tidings: should you set out on this highway
with sincerity and thus follow it, the gateway of a true
understanding of Islam will be opened up to you and you
shall pursue your course smoothly. I shall attempt in
short a talk to explain the cornerstone of Islamic
teachings and some of its fundamental features.

It will be your turn to consider matters carefully and
if you come across anything you would like to understand
more throughly, do not hesitate to set forth your
questions. The subject will be much clarified in the
process of question and answer. In order to banish any
lingering restraint you may have at question time, let me
tell you that I am as keen to hear you as you are at the
moment to hear me. May I finally add that what I may
relate about Islam is confined to the results of my
personal inquiries, and I have not relied upon inherited
beliefs and dogmas or upon the ideas of other thinkers.

I have primarily relied upon the Koran which is the
sacred text of all Muslim, a book revealed to Mohammad
(SAW) so that it may be available to all men at all times
and is the most fundamental source of acquaintance with
Islam. A book which in myriads of copies has been
available to all peoples throughout the centuries. The
question results, if one can rely on a better and more
trustworthy source to get acquainted with Islam.

If we are of the opinion that Koran can be considered
the most important Islamic source, it does not mean that
sources, for example Hadith (statements or actions of the
Prophet (SAW), handed down to us), are absolutely of no
value. There is no doubt that a remarkable portion of
Islamic teachings ought to be understood by means of
these sources. But Hadith and similar sources are only
valuable, if they report truly on statements or actions
of the Prophet Mohammad(SAW).

Doubtful traditions are therefore no acceptable source
to us. In order that the false and doubtful traditions
exercise no disadvantageous influence on Islam, the
principles of this religion demand all traditions-
Hadith, etc.- be first compared with Koran, thus
eliminating such relevant points which do not comply.
Therefore, everybody who wants to realize a true
investigation of Islam and its principles must
consequently first throughly know Koran in each and every
respect and compare each and every theme in tradition,
history and similar fields with the same.

(2) Only One God:

The cornerstone of Islam is "Tauhid",
i.e. Monotheism. "Tauhid" means belief
in only one God and that existence in general-- among
other things the order of nature--is a manifestation of
His grand design, as well as turning to God in prayer and
glorification, away from worshipping any other.

The first article of faith is: "La ilaha,

-- "There is no God but Allah."

And the first step towards Islam: "Ashhadu an
la ilaha illa-llah

-- "I testify that there is no God beside

Not only my tongue but also my heart and inner light
all proclaim that there is no other than the Creator of
the world who is worthy of adoration.

All the other teachings of Islam are founded upon this
and have their sources here. Accordingly Islam proclaimed
monotheism to be the path to salvation: "Qulu la
ilaha illa-llah, tuflihu

--"Say: There is no God but Allah, and thereby you
will attain salvation."

This means: Say and act sincerely, and believe with
all your heart that apart from the only Creator of the
world there is nothing worthy of adoration and this shall
be your path to salvation.

(3) Correct Knowledge of God

Islam has attached importance, more than anything
else, to the proper knowledge of God, free from any
aberration. It is chiefly here that Islam is outstanding.
Consequently, in the course of my talk will have to be a
basis for your future acquaintance with Islam, I shall
attend to this feature.

(4) The Invisible God

The only God to whom Islam invites everyone is
inaccessible to the senses. He is beyond the reach of
eyesight nor is He open to touch.

Koran says in this respect:

"No vision can grasp Him but His grasp is
over all vision.

He is above all comprehension yet Omniscient."


Vision does not penetrate beyond colour and figure but
God has neither one nor the other . His glory is beyond
the reach of vision and other senses in general.

(5) God Unlike Anything Else

We generally have a mental picture of things we know,
for example: flowers and fruits, hills and dales, sun ,
moon and stars and human being as well. But what about
God? Can we also form an image of Him?


Because our notions are a result of our experiences,
or constructions out of our experiences or of analysis
carried on by our restless mind, yet having their roots
in things we have come to know through our senses.

In this respect Koran says:

"The Creator of the heavens and of the
earth. He has created pairs of yourselves as well as
pairs of the animals-thereby He multiplies you.

Nothing is like onto Him and He is the All-hearing,
the All -seeing."

Yes , God can be represented neither in form of a
painting nor a statue. He can also not be conceived.

(6) God, The Omniscient, The Mighty

On various occasions, Koran mentions different and
absolute attributes for God:

"He is the Creator, the Omniscient, the
All-hearing , the All-seeing, the All-guiding, the
Supporter, the Forbearer, the Amiable, the
Always-forgiving, the Self-sufficient...

a God who knows our most secret thoughts, Listens to
the prayers of all His servants, grants each and
everyone his due; a God who is nearer and more
gracious to us than any other being."

(7) Praise of God

Since man's mind has more to do with relative ideas,
that is to say his ideas are of relative things, even in
the understanding of those of His attributes which the
Koran mentions, man is liable to go astray and fall into
error. It is owing to this shortcoming of the human mind
that there are many verses in the Koran which attribute
to God purity from imperfections which have their seat in
the native deficiency of our thoughts.

(8) Praise of God

Since man's mind has more to do with relative ideas,
that is to say his ideas are of relative things, even in
the understanding of those of His attributes which the
Koran mentions, man is liable to go astray and fall into
error. It is owing to this shortcoming of the human mind
that there are many verses in the Koran which attribute
to God purity from imperfections which have their seat in
the native deficiency of our thoughts.

(9) Has God Any Children?

Among these erroneous ideas is the notion that God has
children. There are people who believe that Jesus-peace
be with him- is the son of God. There have also been
people and perhaps there still are, who fancy that angels
are God's daughters.

In this respect the Holy Koran says:

"... And they falsely, having no
knowledge, attributed to Him sons and daughters.
Praise and glory to Him!

He is far above whatever they attributed to Him. The
Creator of the heavens and the earth, wherefrom could
He have a child, when He has no consort?

And He has created everything and knows everything.
That is God , your Lord! There is no God but He, the
Creator of all things. Then worship Him and He is the
Guardian of all things."

"And they say: 'Allah begot a son.

Praise and glory be to Him! Nay, to Him belongs all that
is in the heavens and on the earth, everything renders
worship to Him."

The Koran warns us against considering angels and
apostles as God's offspring. They are His bondsmen,
though admittedly eminent among them. But by no means may
they be considered as His children. Adam, Noah, Abraham,
Lot, Hud, Saleh, Ismael, Isaac, Jacob, Shoaib, Moses
Joshua, Enoch, John, Jesus, Mohammad, and the other
apostles are like us in so far as they are men and God's
servants. He has created them as He has created others.
Should those who say that Jesus is God's son mean that
God is a father as we are to our children, then their
characterisation of Him is improper.

God is elevated above such immature fancies. On the
other hand, if they mean something different they should
use a different notion to express it, rather than the
misleading term "Son of God"

(9) The Danger of Comparison

Using such expressions as "Son of God"
always involves the danger of the only God, to Whom
nothing is alike, appearing to men as a magnified human
being living beyond the clouds. This is the danger of
anthropomorphism which is a stumbling block on the path
of a correct acquaintance with God, deviating the course
of men's thinking.

The unfounded and fanciful beliefs of many believers
and the weak objections made by many agnostics and
atheists are nearly entirely the result of these
unfitting ideas which are in turn produced by the
anthropomorphising imagination of man. Believers create
in their fancy something they call God and worship this
image, and unbelievers considering this product find it
an idea without any foundation and thereupon reject to
believe in His existence at all. But truly, both are in

The only God to Whom Islam invites all men to believe
and to worship is neither this nor that but far above
such false images. It is for these considerations that
one of the primary teachings of

Islam is a total abstinence from comparison

(10) Islam and The Relation between
God, Man and The Universe

Islam considers a correct acquaintance with God as
being related to a proper understanding of man and
universe. According to its teachings the better our
knowledge of man's nature and being , the more perfect
our knowledge of God and the truer.

--"Whoever knows himself knows His Lord."

This also holds true of creation in general. A better
understanding of the creatures is a real help towards
better understanding of God, the Creator. On the other
hand, any kind of deep-rooted error or unfounded fancy
about man and universe, particularly God's relation to
man, universe and to angels leads to an erroneous idea of
God, the Maker because the knowledge of cause and effect
are intimately related.

There are many verses in Koran inviting man to reflect
upon himself and the universe in order to acquire a
better understanding of God.

Thus two pertinent verses of Koran read as follows:

"In the creation of the heavens and the
earth , and in the alternation of night and day,
there are indeed signs for men of understanding
(definite) proof."

"Who think of Allah, standing, sitting and
lying and think about the creation of the heavens and the

It is easy to deduce from these verses the close

Recognition of God/cognition of man and universe.

The 91st verse of the 6th sura reads as follows:

"They did not esteem Allah according to
His value when they said:

'Allah has not sent anything down to man ', Say, who
then has sent the book which Moses brought as a light
and guidance for mankind, but you have made of it
sheets of paper which you show while you conceal

A group of Jews who had dealings with the Meccan's
heard that a messenger had arisen from among the Koreish
saying: 'God has revealed to me so that I may rise up
against those who take partners unto Him, and to rise up
against ignorance and oppression. I have been ordained by
Him to place within the reach of men the divine truths,
so that all may know God and the right way of life,
pleasing Him , and to deliver them from error'.

Accepting the truth that Mohammad was the prophet of
God was for many reasons unpalatable to those Jews, so
that they attempted to sabotage the progress and spread
of Islam from many directions and eventually decided to
fight Islam. They employed various methods in their
struggle. One way was to cast doubt in the humble minds
of the Arabs. Among other things, they said that it is
impossible that God should reveal His message to a man
and it has not been known of God that He has done so. In
reply to this the Koran says:

'What about the book brought by Moses? From where did
it come to him? Is it not true that exactly like the
Koran it was sent down as a revelation on one who had
been chosen for prophecy, so that he may guide men'.

Verily, Moses too was a man to whom a Holy Book had
been revealed as well, and that illusory claim-'God never
sent a revelation to man'- is based on ignorance. The
unwise claim by the Jews was directly related to the
problem of the revelation, but Koran has considered it as
a result of their wrong conception of God.

(11) Man and Universe (RECOGNIZE

Islamic teachings say: "Oh man ! O you, who from
time to time forgets his noble station bowing down in
fear to sun, moon, stars, mountain and wind, and in whose
sight they appear so great and powerful! O You, whose
mind and soul have been conquered by the majesty and
grandeur of the rich and mighty gaping at them in awe,
taking them to be divine Gods, worshiping them in
humility and enslaving yourself to them!

Wake up from your deep sleep! No earthly or heavenly
thing has ascendancy over you! You have not recognised
your worth and have cast yourself for no price at their
feet! Arise! Learn of your strength with which God has
endowed you and employ your faculties rightly! If you
attend to God's bidding, you will see that you are
neither as little nor those as great as you fancy."

(12) Dominating Nature

Islam has openly proclaimed that man's true worth lies
in the measure he has conquered nature and tamed it. The
20th verse of the 31st sura reads as follows:

"Have you not seen that Allah has
subjected to your (use) everything, all things in the
heavens and on the earth and has made His bouties
flow to you in exceeding measure, (both) seen and
unseen ?..."

Moreover verses 32-34 of the 14th sura have the
following wording:

"It is Allah who has created the heavens
and the earth, sent down water from the sky, brought
out fruits therewith to feed you; rendered ships to
your service that they may sail through the sea
according to His will and He subjected streams and
rivers to you."

And He has subjected sun and moon to you, both
diligently pursuing their courses. And the day and the
night has He subjected to you and He has given you all
that you ask for. And if you count the favours of Allah,
you won't be able to number them. Verily, man is unjust
and ungrateful."

These verses and many others point to the possibility
of man to dominate nature. Fourteen centuries ago man had
progressed only so far as to control sheep and cattle,
camel and elephant. He had learnt to use their milk and
meat and hide, ride them or bear his cargo on their
backs. He had learnt to conquer somehow the restless sea,
ride its billows in small or large vessels and cross that
seas with his merchandise. He had also learnt to harness
turbulent rivers and by building dams or channelling off
their angry waters drive them to serene orchards and

But did man always have control of such things? There
was a time when even such paltry things were beyond his
reach. On the contrary, fearing all or some of them, he
could not muster courage to face them.

In the course of time he came to learn that he had no
reason to fear them and casting off his irrational fear,
his inner faculties opened up and in the light of labour
and thought, he conquered and came to master them. Now
the Koran inspires man to consider his area of influence
wider. Let man know that day and night, the sun, moon and
stars and in a word Nature in all its majesty is awaiting
his conquest, on condition that he does justice to
himself and does not give in to ignorance and lust, on
condition that he does not strike the wrong path but
chooses the straight road which God has set before him
and that he be not thankless to his Creator.


Although Islam inspires man with the fire of conquest,
it Warns him at the same time:

"Oh man, let not your feeling of increasing
strength lead to vanity, the other extremity of the
middle way! Once again consider yourself how, despite
your might , you are like a bubble riding the seas. It
will not be long before you lose your youth and
freshness, your will to work and power to think. Despite
your search for strength through art and science, from
time to time you still suffer illness and weakness or old
age and uselessness, so that you cannot drive away a mite
from yourself. Do you know to what this change points?

It points to the fact that though We spoke of your
high station, you are part of the universe in which
nothing owes its life to itself nor is anything in it
everlasting, and everything in it a ray of God the only
lasting thing, independent of all else. Hence, never
banish from your soul the thought of Him, on Whom you
depend for your life and your very existence. Make your
bond with Him secure and attempt to get closer to

(14) Approaching God

How can we draw near to God?

God's perfection and existence know no bounds, while the
existence of all other beings, however, is relative.

The relative beings of our universe are on the path of
evolution and through their inner light seek perfection.
Seeking perfection is to search for God. The more one
acquires relative perfection, the nearer he gets to God,
the Absolutely Perfect.

Man is also one of those beings who of their inner
light seek perfection, but however hard he may try he
cannot cast off his relativity. He can but keep on the
path and increase his measure of perfection and thus
approach God, the Absolutely Perfect.

This is the true meaning of approaching God in Islam.

According to the teachings of Islam any act of worship
in general may be considered as a means of approaching
God only if it helps man on his path to perfection or
maintains the development he has already attained.

(15) Prayer

God is available to all men, at all times, in all
places. Anyone may turn towards Him and seek His help.

Verse 186, sura 2 reads as follows:

"And when My servants ask thee concerning
Me: I am indeed close (to them). I respond to the
prayer of every petitioner, when he calls on

The basic condition of prayer is that man turn to God
in all sincerity.

It is only then that God will answer his prayer,
regardless of time and place and needless of

(16) Sin, Repentance, And Remission

Sinners may also turn away from sin at any time and
place and take the path of goodness and expect God's
mercy and they need nothing and nobody else to have
recourse to.

In this respect Koran says:

"Say: 'Oh, My servants who have
transgressed against themselves!

Despair not of the mercy of Allah. Allah forgives all
sins- He is oft forgiving, most merciful.>>

"Turn ye to your Lord (in repentance) and bow
to His will, before the punishment comes on you, and ye
shall not be helped any more."

(17) God And Universe

The universe and all it contains is a creation of God.
The laws governing the universe, including the laws of
nature, are God's laws and the ways and habits, ordained
by Him. Among the verses of the Koran we find that events
generally attributed to nature (and from one point of
view this is true) are considered as God's work.

Verse 32, sura 14 says in this respect:

"It is Allah Who has created the heavens
and the earth, sent down water from the sky, brought
out fruits therewith to feed you, rendered ships to
your service that they may sail through the sea
according to His will and He subjected streams and
rivers to you."

Such verses teach us that according to the Islamic
notion the natural order is not in opposition to God and
His laws. Rather, it is regarded as part of creation and
God's divine order. Hence, belief in God and His infinite
power does not imply an attitude of disregard towards

Neither should man's belief in God's infinite power
result in holding him back from its scientific
understanding or practical acceptance of nature nor
should concern with nature result in a disbelief in God.
The scientific knowledge of a believer in God is similar
to the scientific knowledge of a disbeliever, both in
theory and in practice. In understanding nature and
harnessing its forces they both proceed hand in hand.
They differ only in so far that the man of science
believing in God does not imprison himself within the
bounds of nature although he is engaged in scientific
research and technical application. For him, nature is a
mirror in which he sees God, its Creator.

The disbelieving man of science on the other hand is
so engrossed with nature that he cannot penetrate its
veil and reach beyond it to its Creator.

(18) Miracles

Even believing in miracles does not affect the work of
a Muslim scientist, because they are extremely rare
accurrings in keeping with their particular order only
when necessary. The ratio of these events to natural ones
is less than even one in a billion and it is an accepted
principle in the methodology that such exceptions do not
affect the value of a scientific law or its technical

Therefore, belief in miracles does not imply a
rejection of nature and vice versa.

(19) Servants Of God

Nature and its numerous active elements serve God. The
staggering order of nature is an emanation of God's will.
All nature phenomena, results of causes, actions and
reactions of a material and natural kind are at the same
time a ray of God's omnipotence, omniscience and His
divine will because natural causes are at God's command

(20) Endless Universe

Verses from the Koran openly proclaim that the world
in which we live is endless.

"If you count God's blessings, you shall
never number them."

Further, God is incessantly in the act of creation,
increasing creation as He wills.

"He increases in the creation as He will.
Allah has power over all things."

Therefore, man's progress in science and technology
with an eye to using the limitless resources of the
universe can never come to a halt and the door of work
and endeavour will always be left open.

(21) Fate And Free Will

The teaching of Islam concerning free will,
predestination and immortality lays great stress on
strengthening man's will to work and try correctly
against a background of correct thinking, using up his
immense capacity for knowledge, correct judgement and
initiative which God had endowed in him , on the one hand
and increase his capacity of endurance and resistance
against difficulties and tribulations, normally occurring
in life on the other hand.

Such teachings are opposed to all manner of indolence,
and fatalism when man is faced with natural and social
difficulties, and frowns upon those who are not robust
and possess no self-assurance when facted with the bitter
facts of life.

(22) Islam, Modern Science, And

From what has already been discussed it is quite clear
that Islam is not only not opposed to scientific and
technological progress, on the contrary, it encourages
it, laying stress only on two points:

1. Scientific, technological and social progress shall
not result in man waxing proud and thereby disregarding
his Creator.

2. This endeavour and progress shall be utilized to
better the condition of men and never be used in
propagating sin or to buttress the foundations of cruelty
and oppression.

(23) Prophecy

Man's thought soars above the clouds in problems
concerning nature and he can expect increasing progress
of his faculties. It is precisely for this reason that
God's messengers have had no special functions there. But
in order to solve problems beyond the realm of nature,
and to gain an insight into the after life and man's
ultimate goal , he is surely in need of guidance from

The God gives men and the guidance He sends down upon
them is through men to whom He makes revelation,
ordaining them to guide their fellows and to teach men
what has been revealed to them. They are the prophets.

The teachings of the prophets are neither the result
of scientific research nor that of personal experience,
but God's teachings which are sent down to them through

"And He does not speak out of caprice. It
is nought but a revelation revealed, taught him by
one terrible in power."

(24) Right Estimation of The Prophets

The Koran from time to time reminds us that the
prophets are men in their substance and they are distinct
from others owing to their ability to receive and pass on
revelations in order to lead men. In other aspects they
do not differ from other human beings. Exactly like
others, they are born, eat, drink, sleep, procreate, rear
children, and live their span of life, and then pass

The Koran says of Mohammad(pbuh):

"Say, I am only a man the like of you, it
is revealed to me that your God is the only God, so
whoever, he hopes for encounter with his Lord, shall
work righteously, and in the worship of his Lord
admit no one as His partner."

Islamic teaching concerning all messengers of God,
among them Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus is the
same. They are all men raised to the station of prophecy
and their only distinction is that they receive God's
revelations to hand over to their fellowmen.

(25) Miracles by Prophets

Koran speaks, too, of miracles worked by the prophets
, but in many verses it is stressed that to work miracles
is not left at their discretion.

They do not possess an extra faculty to those we own,
thus working miracles on request.

Those opposed to Islam constantly requested miracles from
the Prophet.

They would say that if he was truly a prophet of God he
ought to be able to do extraordinary things without
further ado.

The Prophet would reply: "It is not left to me to
perform miracles at your caprice."

The miracles you have heard of God's prophets are
God's works performed exceptionally when conditions have
rendered them necessary, regardless of the personal
inclination of the prophet concerned.

Accordingly, miracles do not raise a prophet above the
station of other men. See Koran, sura 6, verse 109, sura
17, verses 90-93 and many other verses.

(26) Science-Reason And Revelation

Before coming to know the prophets of God we have only
one source of knowledge, experiment and thought, science
and reason. Once we have known the messengers of God and
got sure that they utter nothing but from God we have
gained a new source to realize the truth, i.e. the
teachings of the prophets which originate from the
revelation. Man has no better source of acquainting
himself with God, the problems of the hereafter and a way
of life both pleasing his God and resulting in eternal

(27) Believing in And Honouring All

The Koran openly proclaims that Islam is not the creed
of Mohammad (SAW) alone; it is the religion of all the
prophets of God. Because Islam, which means surrendering
to the truth, is accepting the teachings of God,
acquaintance with God and obeying Him and being aware of
selfishness and bias in these matters. Accordingly Islam
is not only the creed of the prophets but it is the
religion of men seeking the truth. This is why Muslims
respect all prophets, and their scriptures, and believe
in them.

Koran says.

"The messenger believes in what was sent
down to him from his Lord, and the believers; each
one believes in God and His angels and in His books
and His messengers (and says): 'we make no
distinction between any one of His Messengers; and
they say: 'We hear and obey. Our lord, grant us Thy
forgiveness; unto Thee is the homecoming!"

(28) Deviation

The teachings of the messengers of God were gradually
tainted by impure hands and various superstitions
introduced. Matters would go so far that even qualified
scholars were not able to distinguish the true teachings
of the prophets after hard labour and scholarship because
those ignorant friends as well as foes with ill
intentions had tampered with the sources of religion and
even with the divine scriptures.

Under such conditions the only remedy was to send a
new prophet to whom revelation would be made again and
thus the divine truths would be made available anew. The
Koran has in the course of relating the stories of most
prophets explained this point.

(29) Mohammad(SAW) And The Koran

This state of affairs was renewed in the seventh
century. If anyone sincerely sought after the teachings
of Abraham, Moses and Jesus or the other prophets of God,
it was no longer possible for him to attain to the truth.
because there was no reliable source at hand. Neither the
Pentateuch had a clever history nor the Gospels or the
teachings of the other prophets.

These books had been tampered with and this had
rendered them valueless. At this time Mohammad(SAW) was
raised by God to accept his revelations and hand the them
over to mankind. According to the unquestionable evidence
of history, the verses of the Koran which Mohammad(SAW)
as prophet delivered from God had an entirely new and
miraculous style which was inimitable. This feature was
effective in guarding the Koran from alteration.
Moreover, these verses, named the Koran, were made
available to everybody and spread rapidly.

This rapid spreading of Koran during 1334 years since
the death of Mohammad(SAW) has also protected the Koran
from all the causes of alteration and tampering. It is
today available slightest difference in its innumerable
copies. Having such a source book of high authority is a
distinction of Islam not shared by any other religion,
making it possible for anyone at any time and place to
understand it directly and immediately, protecting
himself from any error in its understanding.

(30) The Afterlife

One of the teachings of the prophets is that man's
existence does not cease with death. Death is only the
end of the period of man's struggle and endeavour. During
this period he has to find out for himself with his own
judgement the right path from the wrong and decide upon
his course. He finds his conditions during this period in
a state of flux and seeks to preserve it, if good, and to
alter it for the better, if bad. With the advent of
death, change gives way to eternity. From then onwards
his state is unalterable; it will be what he has made of
it in his period of evaluation and endeavour and the
afterlife is where he achieves the fruit of his struggle
during the previous period. This is Islamic teaching
about life and death and the hereafter.

Koran says.

"On that day shall men be scattered and
see their works, and who has done an atom weight of
good shall see it, and who has dane an atom weight of
evil shall see it."

(31) Paradise And Hell

What is paradise? It is the eternal home of the
blessed and the blissful and of peace, a home which the
righteous have prepared for themselves during their
lifetime by honesty and sincerity and God pleasing

What is hell?

The abode of eternal pain and punishment which
evildoers have built for themselves by taking the wrong
path, doing evil and oppression and spreading wrong

(32) Other Teachings of Islam

What has been said heretofore are the basic teachings
of Islam. Islam has a lot of detailed teachings in other
fields. On the one hand they depend on these basic
teachings and on the other hand on individual, family and
social needs of men spiritually as well as physically.

Prayer, fasting, the Hajj pilgrimage, struggle and
endeavour in making known God's religion and relieving
His servants from oppression, supervising government,
attempting to establish a just and true social and
economic order, love of fellow-men and helping the needy
and helpless, orphans and the poor, truth and honesty,
purity and a constant effort in attaining physical and
spiritual hygiene from some aspects of this teaching.

Their detailed description cannot be expected in one
or two short talks. I hope by means of numerous talks or
printed information about Islam, which we will place at
your disposal, you will get acquainted with them(*).

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(*) This concludes the lecture that
was given by the martyr Ayt. Dr.

Beheshti to the "Epiphany Community Hamburg"
on October 14, 1965 and to the students "Corps
Rhenania Hamburge" on October 29, 1965.